บัญญัติ 10 ประการของวิชาเศรษฐศาสตร์

เรื่องของเศรษฐศาสตร์ไม่มีอะไรซับซ้อน เศรษฐกิจก็เป็นแค่เรื่องของคนกลุ่มหนึ่งที่ทำข้อข้อตกลงกับกับอีกกลุ่มหนึ่งในเรื่องทั่ว ๆ ไปของพวกเขา  ศึกษาวิชาเศรษฐศาสตร์กันด้วยบัญญัติ 4 ประการ ที่เกี่ยวกับการตัดสินใจของแต่ละบุคคล

คนเราตัดสินใจอย่างไร (How people make decisions)

1.บัญญัติข้อที่ 1 ผู้คนต้องเผชิญกับการได้อย่างเสียอย่าง

2.บัญญัติข้อที่ 2 ต้นทุนของสิ่งหนึ่งคือสิ่งที่ต้องเสียไปเพื่อให้ได้สิ่งนั้นมา

3.บัญญัติข้อที่ 3 คนที่มีเหตุผลจะคิดแบบส่วนเพิ่ม

4.บัญญัติข้อที่ 4 ผู้คนตอบสนองต่อสิ่งจูงใจ

คนเรามีปฎิสัมพันธ์ต่อกันอย่างไร (How people Interact)

5.บัญญัติข้อที่ 5 การค้าทำให้ทุกฝ่ายดีขึ้น

6.บัญญัติข้อที่ 6 โดยทั่วไปแล้วตลาดเป็นหนทางที่ดีในการบริหารจัดการกิจกรรมทางเศรษฐกิจ

7.บัญญัติข้อที่ 7 บางครั้งรัฐบาลก็ช่วยทำให้ผลลัพธ์ของตลาดดีขึ้นกว่าเดิมได้

ระบบเศรษฐกิจโดยรวมทำงานอย่างไร (How the economy as whole works)

8.บัญญัติข้อที่ 8 มาตรฐานการครองชีพของประเทศขึ้นอยู่กับฝีมือ ความสามารถในการผลิตสินค้าและบริการ

9.บัญญัติข้อที่ 9 ราคาสินค้าจะสูงขึ้น เมื่อรัฐบาลเพิ่มปริมาณเงินตราเข้าสู่ระบบมากเกินไป

10.บัญญัติข้อที่ 10 สังคมเผชิญภาวะได้อย่างเสียอย่างในระยะสั้นระหว่างภาวะเงินเฟ้อกับภาวะการว่างงาน

สรุป (Summary)

.        หลักการพื้นฐานเกี่ยวการตัดสินใจ คือ ผู้คนเผชิญกับภาวะได้อย่างเสียวอย่างระหว่างเป้าหมายหลายแบบ ต้นทุนของการกระทำใด ๆ วัดได้จากมูลค่าของทางเลือกใด ๆ  ที่ละทิ้งไป ผู้คนที่มีเหตุผลจะตัดสินใจโดยการเปรียบเทียบต้นทุุนส่วนเพิ่มกับผลประโยชน์ส่วนเพิ่ม และผู้คนเปลี่ยนแปลงพฤติกรรมของตัวเองเพื่อตอบสนองต่อสิ่งจูงใจที่ตนได้เผชิญ
        หลักการพื้นฐานเกี่ยวกับปฎิสัมพันธ์ระหว่างผู้คน คือ การค้าและการพึ่งพาอาศัยกันก่อให้เกิดประโยชน์ร่วมกันได้ ตลาดโดยทั่วไปแล้วเป็นหนทางที่ดีต่อการทำกิจกรรมทางเศรษฐกิจร่วมกันของผู้คน และรัฐบาลช่วยทำให้ผลลัพธ์ของตลาดดีขี้นกว่าเดิมได้ด้วยการเยี่ยวยาแก้ไขความล้มเหลวของตลาด หรือส่งเสริมความเสมอภาคของเศรษฐกิจให้สูงขึ้น
        หลักการพื้นฐานเกี่ยวกับระบบเศรษฐกิจโดยรวม คือผลิตภาพเป็นสิ่งที่นำไปสู่มาตรฐานการครองชีพที่สำคัญที่สุด  การเติบโตของปริมาณเงินตราเป็นสิ่งที่นำไปสู่ภาวะเงินเฟ้อที่สำคัญที่สุด และสังคมเผชิญกับภาวะการได้อย่างเสียอย่างระหว่างภาวะเงินเฟ้อกับภาวะการว่างงานระยะสั้น

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